Classes of aggregation

Definitions of the classes of aggregations Rated groups indices by, as seen under "Entity Views" in the Rated Network Explorer Sidebar.


The highest order of commonality among validators. What we conceptualise as pools in the Ethereum staking value chain, is the aggregation of capital layer––in the broadest sense possible. In that sense, a good definition is "custodial or non custodial applications or interfaces, that facilitate the allocation of capital to node operators." Among those we bundle:

  • Liquid staking pools (e.g. Lido or Rocketpool) that operate exclusively on-chain. Liquid staking pools normally collect contributions from users (in ETH), and deploy it in staking on the Beacon Chain accross different node operators. In return they offer a token back to the depositors that represents a "claim" to the assets deposited, as well as the resultant yield (net of fees). The depositor then can access a host of benefits, including instant liquidity (by transferring the claim) or earning additional yield by accessing lending markets on Ethereum.

  • Custodial exchanges or custodians that offer staking as a product to their users (e.g. Coinbase or Bitcoin Suisse).

  • Interfaces that intermediate and/or facilitate users allocating capital to node operators (e.g. Ledger Live).

Node operators

The operating layer of Ethereum validators. In this category we bundle professional entities that task themselves with running validator nodes on behalf of third parties, in custodial or non-custodial fashion. These often are the recipients of "delegations" from pools (liquid staking and otherwise).

Deposit addresses

The highest order of pure on-chain commonality between validators. While we are aware that there are many deposit patterns that join together unrelated capital or operation layers, we also think there is value in this type of grouping, especially for smaller node operators and solo stakers.

Validator indices

Ungrouped validator index pages. Coming soon.

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